A horse race is a form of athletic competition in which a horse is driven over obstacles, usually fences, to determine the winner. It is a popular spectator sport, and is often associated with gambling. Many races are held in the United States, while others take place in Europe and other parts of the world. The Palio di Siena, a horse race held twice a year in the city of Siena, Italy, is one of the most famous.
The earliest races were match races between two or at most three horses, the owners providing the purse, a simple wager. An owner who withdrew typically forfeited half, then later the whole purse. Agreements about these matches were recorded by disinterested third parties who came to be known as keepers of the match book. One of the best-known match books was An Historical List of All Matches Run (1729).
Today’s horse racing has become much more sophisticated and scientifically oriented. New technological advancements have helped to improve horse health, safety and performance. These include thermal imaging cameras that can detect heat strokes in a racehorse, MRI scanners, endoscopes and 3D printing to produce casts for injured or ill horses.
In flat races, the pedigree of a racehorse is one of the most important factors in determining its chances of winning a race. To be eligible to compete in a race, a horse must have a sire (father) and dam (mother) who are purebred members of the breed. In some cases, a horse may be eligible to run based on its past performances, which are calculated as speed, distance and class ratings.
Some horses are born to race, but most must be trained and conditioned to meet the demands of the sport. To be competitive, a racehorse must be in top condition physically and mentally. Trainers must carefully monitor the health of their charges, and may restrict a horse’s exercise or even remove it from competition for the sake of its well-being.
When a racehorse balks in the starting gate, it is often assumed that the animal is either frightened or angry. However, a horse that is reluctant to race may be simply too hot, overworked or tired. The color and condition of a horse’s coat can also affect its behavior in the race. If a racehorse’s coat is bright and rippling, it is considered a good sign.